UNIVERSITI TUNKU ABDUL RAHMAN

Plagiarism and Referencing

What is Plagiarism?  

Plagiarism is “the act of presenting another person’s work or ideas, and pretending that is your own, without acknowledging or citing the source of the work or ideas”.

To avoid plagiarism, you need to give a proper acknowledgment whenever you use another person’s ideas, theory, images, statistics, diagrams, graphs, drawings, etc. from books, magazines, journals, online/ digital resources, internet or any other sources.

When you use another person’s work or ideas, you can use different ways to include the person’s work or ideas in your writing, with proper acknowledging the source of the original work or ideas. This includes:
  

• Quotations - use the author’s exact words with quotation marks;

• Paraphrasing – restate another person’s work or ideas in your own words without changing the original meaning;

• Summarising – summarise the main ideas in your own words, covering only the main points.

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What is referencing?  

Referencing is the acknowledgement of the sources you have used in writing your essay, assignment or piece of work.

By providing a reference to the original source, you:

 Acknowledge that you have read the works of others and recognize their ideas in your own writing. It is important that you do not pass off the work of others as your own. Without proper referencing you may be guilty of plagiarism; which is tantamount to academic theft.
  •  Enable your reader to locate the sources that you have obtained any quotation or idea.

  • Referencing generally has two key elements:

    • In-text Citations and List of Reference (APA / Harvard Style / IEEE); or 
    • Footnotes and a Bibliography (Chicago Manual Style). 
     
    Which Referencing Style to Use?  

    APA Style
    Check the manuals and sample
    Harvard Style
    Check the manuals and sample
    Chicago Manual of Style
    Check the manuals and sample
    IEEE Style
    Check the manuals and sample
    Different referencing styles has its own conventions. However, they convey the same information, only the presentation of the information differs. Most importantly, referencing must be consistent across a single paper regardless of which style you are using. Do not mix referencing styles within a single paper.

    APA Style

     Developed by American Psychological Association (APA)

    • In-text Citations and List of Reference

     "Author-Date" citation in round brackets in the body of the text, and full citation in the reference list.

     List of Reference arranged in alphabetical order by author surname at the end of the paper.

     Example for print book:

    List of Reference:
    Adams, R.J., Weiss, T.D. and Coatie, J.J. (2010). The World Health Organisation, its history and impact. Perseus.

    In-text citation:
    (Adams, Weiss & Coatie, 2010) ……
    Harvard Style

     Unlike other citation styles, there is no definitive version of Harvard Style. The Harvard Referencing Style adopted by the UTAR Library is based on the Harvard System at the Anglia Ruskin University.

     In-text Citations and List of Reference

     "Author-Date" citation in round brackets in the body of the text, and full citation in the reference list.

     List of Reference arranged in alphabetical order by author surname at the end of the paper.

     Example for print book:

    List of Reference:
    Adams, R.J., Weiss, T.D. and Coatie, J.J., 2010. The World Health Organisation, its history and impact. London: Perseus.

    In-text citation:
    (Adams, Weiss and Coatie, 2010) ……
    IEEE Style

    Developed by the Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE).

    In-text Citations and List of Reference

     In-Text Citation - Identify the source with a number in a square bracket, e.g. [1].

     List all references numerically in the order they've been cited within the paper and include the bracketed number at the beginning of each reference.

     Example for print book:

    List of Reference:
    [1] R. Pike, B. Neale, S. Akbar, and P. Linsley, Corporate Finance and Investment: Decisions and Strategies, 9th ed. Harlow, United Kingdom: Pearson, 2018.

    In-text citation:
    Pike et al. [1] ……
    Chicago Manual Style

     In-text citations are in footnotes.

    Footnotes and a Bibliography

     Full details included in the footnotes for the first mention of a text. After this, a shortened version can be used.

     List of Reference arranged in alphabetical order by author surname at the end of the paper.

     Example for print book:

    In-text citation, first mention: (in footnote)
    1. Michael Pollan, The Omnivore's Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals (New York: Penguin, 2006), 99–100.

    In-text citation, shortened notes: (in footnote)
    2. Pollan, Omnivore's Dilemma, 3.

    Bibliography (in alphabetical order at the end of page)
    Pollan, Michael. The Omnivore's Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals. New York: Penguin, 2006.

    Referencing Style used by Faculties/ Institute:
    Faculty/ Institute Undergraduate Postgraduate
    FAM
    APA style
    APA style
    FAS
    APA style 
    APA style 
    FBF
    APA style
    APA style
    FCI
    APA style
    APA style
    FEGT Harvard styleHarvard style
    FICTIEEE style IEEE style
    FMHSAPA style (Physiotherapy)
    Harvard style (MBBS, TCM and Nursing)
    Harvard style
    FScHarvard style Harvard style
    ICSChicago Manual style Chicago Manual style
    LKC FESHarvard style Harvard style

    Reference Management Tool

    You are encouraged to use the reference management tool to manage your referencing in your writing. Mendeley is a free reference manager and academic social network that can help you organise your research, collaborate with others online, and discover the latest research.

    Mendeley

        Specifications
        Storage
    • 2 GB personal library storage space
    • 500 MB shared library storage space
        Applications
    • Mendeley Reference Manager
    • Mendeley Web
    Cite while you writeAvailable
    Cite within web browsers Available - Mendeley Web Importer
    Number of private groups5
    Private group size25
    OthersProvide platform for Social Networking

    Supports on Academic Writing

    1. Books/ eBooks 

    2. Library Information Skills Programme

      Information Skills programme is designed to help students search for information and optimize the use of library resources for their assignments, projects and research. Besides, the students are also taught on how to evaluate internet resources effectively and how to avoid plagiarism in the writing.

      This programme is available to all students who may be interested. Library is organising this programme in every beginning of new trimester. The programme consists of 6 modules and it is a 2-hour session, which conducted over a period of 2 weeks. Module 1 to Module 3 will be covered in the week 1, whereas Module 4 to Module 6 in the subsequent week.


      ModulesOutlines
      Module 1: 
      Information Search Strategies
      ✓ Understand your topics and develop your search strategies
      ✓ Understand different types of information/ resources (books, journals, databases, theses & dissertations, web resources, etc.)
      ✓ How to find the information – library online catalogue, one search on the library website, databases, UTAR IR, etc.
      Module 2: 
      Effective Database Searching
      ✓ Different searching techniques – keyword searching, phrase searching, Boolean Operators searching, truncation search and wildcard search.
      ✓ Basic/ Quick search
      ✓ Advanced search
      Module 3: 
      Evaluation of Web Resources
      ✓ Important of evaluating information sources
      ✓ 5 criteria for evaluating web resources
      Module 4: 
      Plagiarism
      ✓ What is plagiarism
      ✓ Intentional and Unintentional Plagiarism
      ✓ How to avoid plagiarism
      Module 5: 
      Referencing
      ✓ Why proper referencing is important
      ✓ APA and Harvard Referencing Styles
      ✓ Examples of In-text Citation and Reference List for various information sources
      Module 6: 
      Reference Management Tool
      ✓ What is reference management tool
      ✓ Introduction to Mendeley
      ✓ Basis steps on how to use Mendeley to manage your referencing in the writing

      * Students who completed either one of the sessions (2 hours) are eligible to claim for USSDC Points under Lifelong Learning and Information Management component.

    3. Reference Management Tool Workshop
      Reference management tool workshop provides a guidance to the students on how to use a free reference management tool to manage the information sources and referencing in your writing.

      Mendeley Workshop – 2 hours
      ✓ Creating Mendeley account
      ✓ Using Mendeley to import & export references to build your Mendeley library
      ✓ Edit, organise and share your references among your group teams
      ✓ Generating citations and reference list according to your referencing style
      ✓ Exploring the social networking features in Mendeley